Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)

GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION

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Official ESA common name: Asian tiger mosquito

Etymology: not stated [painted white (L); refers to distinctive white & silvery white scales]

Aedes albopictusthe Asian Tiger mosquitois one of the best known mosquitoes in the world, due to its distinctive black and white markings and its close association with humans. Originally described from Calcutta in India, Ae. aegypti is now present on all continents. It established in Hawaii at the end of the 19th century and in Guam in the 1940s, but its major bid for global domination truly started in 1979 with its introduction into Albania through the used tire trade. The species became abundant in the United States during the 1980s and in the 2000s, Ae. albopictus became established in much of Europe and the Middle East. The species has three synonymssamarensis, nigritia and quasinigritiaall described by Ludlow and all described from the Philippines.

Type locality: Calcutta, [West Bengal], India

Type depository: U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., United States (USNM)

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS  (Click photos to view; mouse over and click large photo to zoom in.)

ADULT (illustrated): Head: Proboscis entirely dark-scaled; palpus with white scales at apex; pedicel with scales on lateral surfaces. Thorax: Scutum with median longitudinal stripe; antealar area with patch of broad pale scales; mesepimeron with lower scales; paratergite with scales; postpronotal scales present; postspiracular scales absent; proepisternal scales present; scutal angles without pale scales; subspiracular area with broad white scales. Legs:  Silvery or white scale patches on legs; Ta-I–III1–5 with only basal bands. Abdomen: Tergal scales basal, often not connected with lateral pale scales; I-Te without median patch of white scales. 

LARVA (not illustrated): Head: Seta 1-A very small, weakly developed; seta 4-C prominent, many branched; seta 5-C single, at same level as 7-C; setae 4-C and 6-C distinctly anterior to 7-C. Abdominal segments: Seta 4-V ≤0.5 x length of seta 3-V; seta 2-IV–VI usually with 1–2 branches; seta 13-III–V with unequal branches, with 1 branch distinctly longer than others.  Terminal segments: Seta 2-VII usually with 1–2 branches; comb with comb scales in single row; seta 4-X with 4 pairs of setae on grid; seta 4a-X longer than 0.75 x 4b-X. 

 

TAXONOMIC KEYS

LaCasse & Yamaguti 1950

Huang 1979a

Lee et al. 1987a

Darsie & Pradhan 1990

Jupp 1996

Tanaka 2000b

Huang 2004

Darsie & Ward 2005

Rattanarithikul et al. 2010

Becker et al. 2010

Harrison et al. 2016

WRBU LUCID KEYS

 

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Neotropical Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Neotropical Region – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Australasian Region - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Australasian Region - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Indomalayan Region - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Indomalayan Region - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Oriental Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Oriental Region – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Eastern Palearctic Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Eastern Palearctic Region – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Western Palearctic Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Western Palearctic Region – Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Afrotropical Region – Adult

larval key icon

WRBU – Aedes – Afrotropical Region – Larva

Exemplar DNA sequences

Ae. albopictus  COI: AB738121–22, KP843392–401, KP877563–75, KP896550–75, KR061437–56;

Ae. albopictus whole genome ID: 44.

 

BIONOMICS

Immatures

In their native southeast Asia, Ae. albopictus oviposit in plant-based containers and containers with parts of plants in them, less frequently using artificial containers, sometimes in sympatry with Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus). Aedes albopictus occurs in natural containers in forest environs in the southeastern United States, but it is most abundant elsewhere as an urban mosquito, occupying artificial containers including cemetery vases, gutters, water collections in garden environments and water pools in discarded trash. Where Ae. albopictus immatures sympatric with Ae. aegypti or Ae. guamensis Farner & Bohart, Ae. albopictus regularly outcompetes them. Eggs aptly survive desiccation, enabling the inadvertent introduction of the species through global trade, primarily tires and plants. Aedes albopictus overwinter as eggs in northern habitats.

Adults

Due to its close association with human dwellings and its day-biting habits, Ae. albopictus can become an intense nuisance species in urban areas. Aedes albopictus take multiple bloodmeals per ovicycle, and although they appear highly anthropophilic, females feed opportunistically on many hosts, including mammals and birds. These biting habits enhance their ability to transmit zoonotic pathogens, and the species is a competent vector of many viruses and pathogens.

 

DISTRIBUTION NOTES

Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Borneo, Brunei, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, British Indian Ocean Territory, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands (Polynesia), Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, France (includes Corsica), French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, FYRO Macedonia, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Greece (includes Crete), Guam, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India (includes Andaman Islands), Indonesia (Flores, Java, Moluccas, Sumatra including Ketulauan Riouw Archipelago, Timor), Israel (and Gaza Strip & West Bank), Italy (including Giglo, Sardinia, Sicily, Ventotene, Ustica islands), Iran, Japan, Jordan, Kosovo, Laos, Lebanon, Macau, Madagascar (includes Glorioso & Juan De Nova Is), Madeira, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marianas Islands, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia (Wake Island), Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, People’s Republic of China (includes Hong Kong), Philippines, Polynesian Islands; Howland; Jarvis; Johnston Atol; Pitcairn; Wallis & Futuna, Puerto Rico, Republic of Congo, Republic of South Africa, Reunion, Romania, Russia, Samoa (Ind. State of Samoa; American Samoa; Western Samoa), San Marino, São Tomé & Principe, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Spain (includes Balearic Islands: Ibiza, Minorca), Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Tuvalu, United States (continental, Hawaiʻi), Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam.

Distribution
Distribution map for <em>Aedes albopictus</em> (Skuse, 1895)

 

WRBU VECTOR HAZARD REPORTS

VHR: Chikungunya in the Americas and Caribbean

VHR: Honduras

VHR: Panama

VHR: West Africa

VHR: Southeast Asia

VHR: Middle East

VHR: Notes on the Biology of Zika Virus Vectors

VHR: Pictorial Guide to Zika Virus Vectors CONUS

VHR: Zika Virus Vectors of Puerto Rico

VHR: Medically Important Mosquitoes of EUCOM

VHR: Mosquito Activity Forecast US-Mexico Border October 2019

VHR: Southern US and Northern Mexico

VHR: Mosquitoes of the Caribbean 

View other WRBU Vector Hazard Reports

Available GIS Models:

Ae_albopictus_Dornak_1 Global

Ae_albopictus_(2000-2009)_Proestos_1 Global

Ae_albopictus_(2045-2054)_Proestos_2 Global

Ae_albopictus_Nyari_1 Asia

Ae_albopictus_Samson_1 South & Central America

Monthly Average Habitat Suitability Kraemer et al 2016 Global

 

IMPORTANT REFERENCES (full citations below)

Skuse 1895 (1894): 20 (F*; Culex)

Banks 1908 (E*, L*)

Barraud 1923h (L*)

Barraud 1934: 233 (M*, F*, L*)

Edwards 1941: 153 (A), 391 (P*)

Bohart & Ingram 1946b (M*, F*, L*)

LaCasse & Yamaguti 1950: 111 (M*, F*, P*, L*; keys, bionomics)

Knight & Hull 1952: 176 (M*, F, L)

Mattingly 1953a: 17 (taxonomy), 49 (distribution)

Horsfall 1955: 506 (review)

Iyengar & Menon 1955 (distribution)

Hara 1957: 65 (F*)

Bullock 1960 (E*)

Joshi et al. 1965 (distribution; Nepal)

Mohrig 1967 (F*)

Huang 1968c: 297 (M*, F*, P*; neotype designation)

Pratt & Kidwell 1969 (E*)

Aslamkhan 1971b (distribution; Pakistan)

Mattingly 1971a: Pl. 15 (P abdomen*)

Lambrecht & van Someren 1971: 483 (distribution)

Basio 1971b: 27 (M*; bionomics)

Huang 1971 (F*)

Huang 1972c: 13 (M*, F*, P*, L*; distribution)

Matsuo et al. 1972 (E*)

Colless 1973: 226 (distribution)

Moriya et al. 1973 (E*)

Matsuo et al. 1974: 180 (E*)

Baisas 1974: 33 (M, F*, P*, L*; taxonomy, bionomics, distribution; Philippines)

Tanaka et al. 1975c: Tanaka et al. 1975c: 223 (bionomics, distribution)

Huang 1979a (F*; keys, distribution)

Tanaka et al. 1979: 380 (M*, F*, L*)

Lu 1985 (taxonomy; sensu lato)

Ahmed 1987 (distribution; Bangladesh)

Lee et al. 1987a: 75 (F key, taxonomy, bioomics., distribution, review)

Linley 1989b (E*)

Darsie & Pradhan 1990 (F, L; taxonomy, keys, bionomics, distribution; Nepal)

Pozza & Mojori 1992: 318 (distribution; Italy)

Suleman et al. 1993 (distribution; Pakistan)

Ibáñez-Bernal & Martínez-Campos 1994: 231 (distribution; Mexico)

Knudsen 1995 37: 93 (distribution)

Ogata & Samayoa 1996: 503 (distribution; Guatemala)

Jupp 1996 (M*, F*; key)

Adhami & Reiter 1998: 340 (distribution; Albania)

Darsie 1999: 614 (distribution)

Albuquerque et al. 2000 (distribution; Brazil)

Delaunay et al. 2000: 17 (distribution; France)

Tanaka 2000b: 232 (P*; taxonomy, key)

Whelan & Hapgood 2000: (bionomics; distribution; East Timor)

Chadee et al. 2003: 438 (distribution; Trinidad)

Pena et al. 2003 (distribution; Dominican Republic)

Rossi & Martínez 2003: 471 (distribution; Uruguay)

Toto et al. 2003: 343 (distribution; Equatorial Guinea)

Girod 2004: 74 (distribution; Comoros, Reunion)

Huang 2004: 14 (M*, F*; taxonomy, keys, distribution)

Darsie & Ward 2005 (F*, L*; keys, distribution)

Rattanarithikul et al. 2010 (F*, L*; keys, bionomics, distribution; Thailand)

Becker et al. 2010: 201 (M*, F*, L*; keys, taxonomy, distribution, bionomics)

Ngoagouni et al. 2015 (distribution; Africa)

Kutateladze et al. 2016 (distribution; Republic of Georgia)

Harrison et al. 2016 (F*, L*; keys, distribution, taxonomy)

Ponce et al. 2018 (distribution, Ecuador)

Giordano 2019 (distribution; Canada)

Robert et al. 2019 (distribution, Euro-Mediterranean)

 

CURRENT SYNONYMS

syn. samarensis Ludlow

1903: 138 (A; Stegomyia scutellaris ssp.). Type locality: Samar, Philippines (USNM). References: Stone & Knight 1956a: 225 (type information, lectotype designation).

syn. nigritia Ludlow

1910: 194 (F; Stegomyia). Type locality: Cotabato, Mindanao, Philippines (USNM). References: Stone & Knight 1956a: 222 (type information, lectotype designation).

syn. quasinigritia Ludlow

1911b: 129 (M; Stegomyia). Type locality: Turucan, Mindanao, Philippines (USNM).

 

CITED REFERENCES

Adhami, J., & Reiter, P. (1998). Introduction and establishment of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in Albania. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 14(3), 340–343.

Ahmed, T.U. (1987). Checklist of the mosquitoes of Bangladesh. Mosquito Systematics, 19(3), 187–200.

Albuquerque, C., Melo-Santos, M.A.V., Bezerra, M.A.S., Barbosa, R., Silva, D.F., & Silva, E. (2000). First report of Aedes albopictus in areas of rain forest in Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública, 34(3), 314–315.

Aslamkhan, M. (1971b). The mosquitoes of Pakistan I. A checklist. Mosquito Systematics, 3(4), 147–159.

Baisas, F. E. (1974). The mosquito fauna of Subic Bay Naval Reservation, Republic of the Philippines. San Francisco: Headquarters, First Medical Service Wing (PACAF), San Francisco.

Banks, C. S. (1908). Biology of Philippine Culicidae. Philippine Journal of Science, 3(4), 235–258.

Barraud, P. J. (1923h). A revision of the Culicine mosquitoes of India. Part VI. Some Indian species of the genus Finlaya Theo. adult stage. Indian Journal of Medical Research (Calcutta), 11(2), 475–493.

Barraud, P. J. (1934). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. 5. Family Culicidae, tribes Megarhinini and Culicini. London: Taylor and Francis.

Basio, R. G. (1971b). The mosquito fauna of the Philippines (Diptera, Culicidae). Manila: National Museum of the Philippines. 198pp.

Becker, N., Petrić, D., Zgomba, M., Boase, C., Madon, M., Dahl, C., & Kaiser, A. (2010). Mosquitoes and their control (Second ed.). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Bohart, R.M., & Ingram, R.L. (1946b). Mosquitoes of Okinawa and islands in the Central Pacific. In United States NAVMED (Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Navy Department) (pp. 110). Washington.

Bullock, H.R. (1960). Chorionic pattern of Aedes eggs by SUMP method. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 79(2), 167–170.

Chadee, D.D., Fat, F.H., & Persad, R.C. (2003). First record of Aedes albopictus from Trinidad, West Indies. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 19(4), 438–439.

Colless, D.H. (1973). A note on the status of Aedes malayensis and the distribution of Aedes albopictus. Mosquito Systematics, 5(3), 225–226.

Darsie, R.F., Jr. (1999). Description of the pupa of Aedes cretinus Edwards, a key to the pupae of the albopictus subgroup, subgenus Stegomyia Theobald, genus Aedes Meigen, and characters to separate the European Stegomyia species (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 101(3), 614-64–618.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Pradhan, S.P. (1990). The mosquitoes of Nepal: Their identification, distribution and biology. Mosquito Systematics, 22(2), 69–130.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Ward, R.A. (2005). Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, north of Mexico. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

Delaunay, P., Schaffner, F., & Babinot, M. (2000). A new mosquito in France Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae) searched for in Alpes-Maritime … found in Orne. Riviera Scientifique, 84, 17–18.

Edwards, F.W. (1941). Mosquitoes of the Ethiopian Region. III. Culicine adults and pupae. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology.

Giordano, B.V. (2019). Transmission dynamics and epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Ontario, Canada. PhD thesis, Brock University, Canada.

Girod, R. (2004). First record of Aedes albopictus in Mayotte Island, Comoros Archipelago. Parasite, 11(1), 74.

Hara, J. (1957). Studies on the female terminalia of Japanese mosquitoes. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine, 27, 45–91.

Harrison, B.A., Byrd, B.D., Sither, C.B., & Whitt, P.B. (2016). The mosquitoes of the Mid-Atlantic Region: an identification guide (Vol. 1). Madison Heights, MI: Publishing XPress.

Horsfall, W.R. (1955). Mosquitoes. Their bionomics and relation to disease. New York, NY: Hafner Publishing Company. (Reprinted 1972).

Huang, Y.-M. (1968c). Neotype designation for Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera, Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 70, 297–302.

Huang, Y.-M. (1971). A redescription of Aedes (Stegomyia) scutellaris malayensis Colless and the differentiation of the larva from that of Aedes (S.) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 73, 1–8.

Huang, Y.-M. (1972c). Contributions to the mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia. XIV. The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia. I. The Scutellaris group of species. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 9(1), 1–109.

Huang, Y.-M. (1979a). Medical entomology studies - XI. The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Oriental region with keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 15(6), 1–76.

Huang, Y.-M. (2004). The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region with keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa, 700, 1–120.

Ibanez-Bernal, S., & Martinez-Campos, C. (1994). Aedes albopictus in Mexico. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 10(2 Part 1), 231–232.

Iyengar, M.O.T, & Menon, M.A.U. (1955). Mosquitos of the Maldive Islands. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 46, 1–10.

Joshi, G., Pradhan, S., & Darsie, Jr., R.F. (1965). Culicine, Sabethine and Toxorhynchitine mosquitoes of Nepal including new country records (Diptera: Culicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 67(3), 137–146.

Jupp, P.G. (1996). Mosquitoes of southern Africa. Culicinae and Toxorhynchitinae. Ekogilde Publishers, Hartebeespoort, South Africa, 156pp.

Knight, K.L., & Hull, W.B. (1952). The Aedes mosquitoes of the Philippine Islands II. Subgenera Skusea, Christophersiomyia, Geoskusea, Rhinoskusea, and Stegomyia (Diptera, Culicidae). Pacific Science, 6, 157–189.

Knudsen, A.B. (1995). Global distribution and continuing spread of Aedes albopictus. Parassitologia, 37(2,3), 91–97.

Kutateladze, T., Zangaladze, E., Dolidze, N., Mamatsashvili, T., Andrews, E.S., & Haddow, A.D. (2016). First record of Aedes albopictus in Georgia and updated checklist of reported species. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 32(3), 230–233.

La Casse, W.J., & Yamaguti, S. (1950). Mosquito fauna of Japan and Korea. Office of the Surgeon General, Headquarters, 8th Army, APO 343. United States. 207th Malaria Survey Detachment.

Lambrecht, F.L., & van Someren, E.C.C. (1971). Mosquitoes of the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Southeast Asian J. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 2, 483–485.

Lee, D.J., Hicks, M.M., Griffiths, M., Debenham, M.L., Bryan, J.H., Russell, R.C., . . . Marks, E.N. (1987a). The Culicidae of the Australasian region. Volume 4. Commonwealth Department of Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Monograph Series, 2.

Linley, J.R. (1989b). Comparative fine structure of the eggs of Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Ae. bahamensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 26(6), 510–521.

Lu, B.-L. (1985). The study of Aedes albopictus subgroup of genus Aedes of China. II. Larvae. Zoological Research, 6(1), 10–18.

Ludlow, C.S. (1903). Some Philippine mosquitoes. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 11, 137–144.

Ludlow, C.S. (1910). Mosquito observations. (continued). Canadian Entomologist, 42, 193–196.

Ludlow, C.S. (1911b). The Philippine mosquitoes. Psyche, 18, 125–133.

Lutz, H. (1985). A fossil mosquito from the Lower Oligocene of Cereste France (Diptera: Culicidae). Palaeontologische Zeitschrift, 59(314), 269–276.

Matsuo, K., Yoshida, Y., & Kunou, I. (1972). The scanning electron microscopy of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). I. The egg surfaces of five species of Aedes and Armigeres subalbatus. Journal of the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 81, 358–363.

Matsuo, K., Yoshida, Y., & Lien, J.-C. (1974). Scanning electron microscopy of mosquitoes. II. The egg surface structure of 13 species of Aedes from Taiwan. Journal of Medical Entomology, 11, 179–188.

Mattingly, P.F. (1953a). The subgenus Stegomyia (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Ethiopian region II. Distribution of species confined to the east and south African sub-region. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, 3(1), 1–65.

Mattingly, P.F. (1971a). Contributions to the mosquito fauna of Southeast Asia. XII. Illustrated keys to the genera of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 7(4), 1–84.

Mohrig, W. (1967). Die taxonomische Bedeutung der Struktur weiblicher Genitalien im Culiciden- Tribus Aedini. Angewandte Parasitologie, 8, 67–100.

Moriya, K., Yabe, T., & Harada, F. (1973). Chorionic markings of some aedine mosquitoes in Japan. 1. Preliminary observations by a scanning electron microscope and a reflected lighting microscope. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology, 24(1), 47–55.

Ngoagouni, C., Kamgang, B., Nakouné, E., Paupy, C., & Kazanji, M. (2015). Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases? Parasites and Vectors, 8, 191.

Ogata, K., & Lopez Samayoa, A. (1996). Discovery of Aedes albopictus in Guatemala. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 12(3), 503–506.

Pena, C.J., Gonzalvez, G., & Chadee, D. (2003). Seasonal prevalence and container preferences of Aedes albopictus in Santo Domingo City, Dominican Republic. Journal of Vector Ecology, 28(2), 208–212.

Rattanarithikul, R., Harbach, R.E., Harrison, B.A., Panthusiri, P., Coleman, R.E., & Richardson, J.H. (2010). Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand VI. Tribe Aedini. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 41(1), 1–225.

Robert, V., Günay, F., Le Goff, G., Boussès, P., Sulesco, T., Khalin, A., Medlock, J.M., Kampen, H., Petrić, D. & F. Schaffner. (2019). Distribution chart for Euro-Mediterranean mosquitoes (western Palaearctic region). Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association, 37, 1–28.

Rossi, G.C., & Martinez, M. (2003). Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Uruguay. Entomon Vect, 10(4), 469–478.

Skuse, F.A.A. (1895). The banded mosquito of Bengal. Indian Museum Notes, 5(3), 20.

Suleman, M., Khan, K., & Khan, S. (1993). Ecology of mosquitoes in Peshawar Valley and adjoining areas: Species composition and relative abundance. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 25(4), 321–328.

Tanaka, K. (2000b). Studies on the pupal mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Japan. (3) Aedes (Stegomyia). Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology, 6(2), 225–247.

Tanaka, K., Mizusawa, K., & Saugstad, E.S. (1979). A revision of the adult and larval mosquitoes of Japan (including the Ryukyu Archipelago and Ogasawara Islands) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 16, 1–987.

Tanaka, K., Saugstad, E.S., & Mizusawa, K. (1975c). Mosquitoes of the Ryukyu Archipelago (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 7(3), 207–233.

Whelan, P., & Hapgood, G. (2000). A mosquito survey of Dili, East Timor, and implications for disease control. Arbovirus Research in Australia, 8, 405–416.

 

CITE THIS PAGE

Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year).  Aedes albopictus species page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website, http://wrbu.si.edu/vectorspecies/mosquitoes/albopictus, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].