Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771)




Etymology: Caspian Sea

Aedes caspius is one of the most common mosquitoes found in many areas of Europe and the Middle East. It is the nominative species of the Caspius Group, which also includes the common Holarctic vector species Ae. dorsalis (Meigen). The species are sometimes sympatric, but overall Ae. caspius tends to be found in hotter, drier areas than Aedes dorsalis.

Type locality: Caspian Sea

Type depository: Type non-existent (NE)

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS  (Click photos to view; mouse over and click large photo to zoom in.)

ADULT (illustrated): Thorax: Scutum with golden scales and narrow dorsocentral lines of white scales.  Abdomen: Terga with median pale stripe, or all pale-scaled. Wing: Speckled with dark and pale scales; costa predominantly dark-scaled.  Leg: Ta-III1–4 with basal and apical bands

LARVA (not illustrated): Head: Antenna usually uniformly spiculate; seta 1-A 3–12 branched.  Terminal segments: 18–28 comb scales in a triangular patch; siphon with 1-S multi-branched; pecten with c. 20 spines reaching c. mid siphon.



Darsie & Samandou-Voyadjoglou 1997

Samanidou-Voyadjoglou & Harbach 2001

Becker et al. 2010


Exemplar DNA sequences

Ae. caspius  COI: AF253024–25, KM452948, KM457568-69, KP942727, KP942758, KT361854-55, KT634315, KT876464, KT876468, MH559350, MH634424–25.




Aedes caspius immatures are found in a wide variety of shaded or unshaded coastal sites in the United Kingdom, and in saline lakes and pools around the Mediterranean. In the remainder of its range, it is found in both fresh and saline marshes, but is most abundant in salt marshes.


Aedes caspius is a floodwater mosquito, passing the winters in colder climates as eggs than emerge upon inundation in the spring. Like other salt marsh mosquitoes, females often make long-distance flights shortly after emergence. Some Ae. caspius populations are autogenous, able to deposit one batch of eggs prior to the first blood meal. Aedes caspius pass multiple generations per year and can become a significant nuisance when abundant, biting day and night, both indoors and out. At lower population levels, biting usually occurs outdoors during crepuscular periods. It is one of the only mosquitoes proven to transmit Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia.



Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, FYRO Macedonia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel (and Gaza Strip & West Bank), Italy (includes Sardinia & Sicily), Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Malta, Mauritania, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, People's Republic of China, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia (Northwestern, Central, Southern & Volga Districts), Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (includes Balearic & Canary Islands), Sri Lanka, Sudan & South Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Yemen.

Distribution map for <em>Aedes caspius</em> (Pallas, 1771)



VHR: Medically Important Mosquitoes of EUCOM


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IMPORTANT REFERENCES  (full citations below)

Pallas 1771: 574 (A; as Culex)

Kirkpatrick 1925b: 79 (M*, F*, P*, L*; bionomics)

Barraud 1934: 148 (M*, F, P, L)

Marshall 1938 (E*)

Clavero 1946: 8 (M*, F*, L*)

Natvig 1948: 211 (M*, F*, L*; bionomics), 202 (taxonomy)

Senevet et al. 1949 (aberrant M*)

Monchadskii 1951: 160, 164 (L*; taxonomy)

Hopkins 1952: 125 (L*)

Mattingly & Knight 1956: 98 (taxonomy)

Richards 1956: 264 (M*, F*, L*)

Nielsen & Nielsen 1958: 282 (bionomics)

Senevet & Andarelli 1958: 279 (P*)

Abul-Hab 1967: 279 (distribution)

Aslamkhan 1971b (distribution; Pakistan)

Minar 1971 (distribution)

Rjazantzeva 1972 (F*)

Gutsevich et al. 1974: 197 (M, F, L*)

Minar 1976: 344 (M*, F*; taxonomy)

Utrio 1976: 131, 134 (L*)

Gutsevich 1976: 48 (polymorphism)

Rodhain et al. 1977 (distribution)

Moussiegt 1981 (complete annotated bibliography)

Zaim 1987 (distribution)

Moussiegt 1988b (complete annotated bibliography)

Lambert et al. 1990 (E*)

Mgeladze 1991: 329 (distribution; Georgia)

Linley et al. 1993c (E*)

Suleman et al. 1993 (distribution; Pakistan)

Abdullah & Merdan 1995 (distribution; Saudi Arabia)

Amr et al. 1997 (distribution; Jordan)

Darsie & Samanidou-Voyadjoglou 1997 (keys)

Alten et al. 2000 (distribution; Turkey)

Eritja et al. 2000: 11 (distribution)

Hadjivassilis 2000 7: 38 (distribution; Cyprus)

Spungis 2000 (distribution; Latvia)

Samanidou-Voyadjoglou & Harbach 2001 (key)

Trari et al. 2002 (distribution; Morocco)

Milankov et al. 2009 (taxonomy, bionomics, review)

Osório et al. 2010 (distribution, Portugal)

Becker et al. 2010: 216 (M*, F*, L*; keys, taxonomy, distribution, bionomics)

Ahmed et al. 2011 (distribution; Saudi Arabia)

Namazov 2014 (distribution; Azerbaijan)

Robert et al. 2019 (distribution, Euro-Mediterranean)



syn. punctatus Meigen

1804: 6 (M, F; Culex). Type locality: Aden (MNHP).

syn. siculus Robineau-Desvoidy

1827: 406 (M, F; Culex). Type locality: Sicily [Italy] (NE).

syn. maculiventris Macquart

1846a : 135 (F; Culex). Type locality: Algeria (MNHP).

syn. penicillaris Rondani

1872: 31 (A; Culex). Type locality: Italy (LU).

syn. curriei Coquillett

1901: 259 (F; Culex). Type locality: Boise, Idaho, United States (USNM). References: Stone & Knight 1956a: 216 (type information).

syn. onondagensis Felt

1904: 304 (F*; Culex). Type locality: Lake Onondaga, Syracuse, New York, United States (NY). References: Howard et al. 1917: 629 (M, F, L*).

syn. longisquamosa Theobald

1905f: 103 (F*; Grabhamia). Type locality: Sousse, Tunis [Tunisia] (HNM). References Edwards 1921d: 299 (synonymy).

syn. subtilis Sergent & Sergent

1905: 673 (Apr. 14) (A, L; Grabhamia). Type locality: Biskra [Constantine], Algeria (LU).

syn. lativittatus Coquillett

1906c: 109 (A; Culex). Type locality: Arden, Alameda County, California, United States (USNM). References: Stone & Knight 1956a: 220 (type information, lectotype designation).

syn. arabica Giles

1906: 130 (M, F; Mansonia). Type locality: Bahrain, Persian Gulf (NHMUK).

syn. quaylei Dyar & Knab

1906d: 202 (A). /span>Type locality: California, United States (NE). References: Stone & Knight 1956a: 224 (type information).

syn. africanus Neveu-Lemaire

1906: 271 (F*; Taeniorhynchus). Type locality: Port Said, Suez & Cairo [Egypt] (NE).

syn. willcocksii Theobald

1907: 296 (M*, F*; Grabhamia). Type locality: Kafr el Dawar, Egypt (NHMUK).

syn. arabicus Becker

1910: 140 (F; Culex). Type locality: Ras Shoab, Socotra [Yemen] (ZM).

ssp. hargreavesi Edwards

1920a: 130 (F; as Aedes). Type locality: Taranto [Puglia], Italy (NHMUK). Distribution: France, Italy. References: Harbach & Howard 2007: 43 (to subspecies). Etymology: E. Hargreaves.

syn. broquetii Theobald

1913c: 179 (F; Grabhamia). Type locality: Tet-chili, northern China & Tamsui, Formosa [Taiwan, ROC] (NHMUK & GDZ).

syn. grahami Ludlow

1920(1919)a: 154 (M, F). Type locality: Mostovoi, Siberia [USSR] (USNM). References: Stone & Knight 1956a: 218 (type information, lectotype designation).

syn. epsilonn Séguy

1924: Pl. XXIII, 97 (L*). Type locality: Region de Djamaa, Tiguedidine [Touggourt], Algeria (NE). References: Monchadskii 1951: 160 (synonymy).

ssp. meirai Ribeiro, Ramos, Capela & Pires

1980: 69 (M, F, L, P; as Aedes (Ochlerotatus)). Type locality: Curral Velho, Ilha da Boa Vista, Cape Verde (IHMT). Distribution: Cape Verde. Etymology: Manuel T.V. de Meira. 



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Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Aedes caspius species page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website,, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].