Anopheles gigas Giles, 1901




Etymology: giant (Gr); a large mosquito

Type locality: Conoor (6,000 ft), Nilgiri Hills [Madras], India

Type depository: Natural History Museum, London, England, United Kingdom (NHMUK)


Nguyen Thuong Hien 1968

Darsie & Pradhan 1990



 adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Global - Adult

 larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Global - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Indomalaya - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Indomalaya - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Genera - Oriental - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Genera - Oriental - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Anopheles Subgenera and Series - Indomalaya - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Anopheles Subgenera and Series - Indomalaya - Larva

adult mosquito key icon

WRBU - Anopheles Subgenera and Series - Oriental - Adult

larval key icon

WRBU - Anopheles Subgenera and Series - Oriental - Larva

Exemplar DNA sequences

All Anopheles gigas DNA sequences



Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand.



Giles 1901b: 196 (M, F)

Christophers 1923b (F*)

Christophers 1933: 130 (M*, F*, L*)

Mochtar & Walandouw 1934: 932 (F*, L*; s.l.)

Bonne-Wepster & Swellengrebel 1953: 130 (taxonomy)

Narayandas 1954: 19 (E*)

Nguyen Thuong Hien 1968 (F*, L*; keys, taxonomy, distribution; Vietnam)

Reid 1968: 215 (M*, F*, L*; taxonomy)

Aslamkhan 1971b (distribution; Pakistan)

Townsend 1990: 134 (type information)

Darsie & Pradhan 1990 (F, L; taxonomy, keys, bionomics, distribution; Nepal)

Oo et al. 2004 (distribution; Myanmar)

Somboon, Phanitchakun, Namgay, Wangdi, Pemo & Harbach 2020 (to Baileyi complex) to ssp. simlensis (James) 






ssp. formosus Ludlow

1909a: 22 (F; as species). Type locality: Camp John Hay, Benguet [Mountain, Luzon], Philippines (USNM). Distribution: Indonesia, Philippines. References: Christophers 1924a: 25, 85 (to gigas variety); Bonne-Wepster & Swellengrebel 1953: 136 (M*, F*, L*); Stone & Knight 1956b: 277 (type information); Basio 1971b: 35 (M*, F*; bionomics); Lien et al. 1977 (distribution); Harbach & Howard 2007: 39 (from gigas variety) Etymology: n.s. [beautiful (L)].


ssp. simlensis (James)

1911: 66 (A*, L; Patagiamyia; as species) . In James & Liston 1911. Type locality: Mahasu, near Simla [East Punjab], India (NHMUK). Distribution: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, People’s Republic of China. References.: Christophers 1916b: 467 (to syn. <em>of</em> gigas); Christophers 1924b: 12 (to gigas variety); Christophers 1933: 136 (M*, F*, P, L); Reid 1968: 215 (M*, F*; taxonomy); Aslamkhan 1971b (distribution; Pakistan); Ahmed 1987 (distribution; Bangladesh); Townsend 1990: 134 (type information); Darsie & Pradhan 1990 (F, L; taxonomy, keys, bionomics, distribution; Nepal); Glick 1992: 129 (distribution); Harbach & Howard 2007: 39 (from gigas variety); Qu & Zhu 2008 (distribution; People’s Republic of China). Etymology: Simla, India.


ssp. refutans Alcock

1913: 161 (A; as gigas variety). Type locality: [Maskeliya], Ceylon [Sri Lanka] (NHMUK?). Distribution: Sri Lanka. Refs.: Christophers 1933: 138 (A, L); D’Abrera 1944: 344 (E*); Reid 1968: 215 (E*); Harbach & Howard 2007: 39 (from gigas variety). Etymology: n.s. [refute (L)].


ssp. danaubento Mochtar & Walandouw

1934: 932 (F*, L*). Type locality: Danau-Bento, West Coast, Sumatra [Indonesia] (GLB?). Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra). References: Bonne-Wepster & Swellengrebel 1953: 140 (M*, F*, L*); Harbach & Howard 2007: 39 (from gigas variety). Etymology: Danau Bento, Central Sumatra.


ssp. oedjalikalah Nainggolan

1939: 163 (M*, F*, L*). Type locality: Oedjali Kalah, Sumatra [Indonesia] (LU). Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra). References: Bonne-Wepster & Swellengrebel 1953: 142 (M*, F*, L*; as oedjalikalahensis); Harbach & Howard 2007: 39 (from gigas variety). Etymology: Mt. Kerintji, Sumatra.


ssp. pantjarbatu Waktoedi Koesoemawinangoen

1954: 49 (L). Type locality: Sumatra [Indonesia] (LU). Distribution: Indonesia. References: Harbach & Howard 2007: 39 (from gigas variety). Etymology: Pancurbatu [Pantcurbatu], Indonesia.


ssp. crockeri Colless

1955a: 337 (F*, P*, L*). Type locality: Saung-Saung, Sunsuran Trace, North Borneo, Borneo (NHMUK). Distribution: Malaysia (Borneo). References: Reid 1968: 219 (F*, P*, L*; to subspecies). Etymology: n.s. [prob. Crocker Range, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia].



Ahmed, T.U. (1987). Checklist of the mosquitoes of Bangladesh. Mosquito Systematics, 19(3), 187–200.

Alcock, A. (1913). Synopsis of the anopheline mosquitos of Africa and of the Oriental region. Journal of the London School of Tropical Medicine, 2(3), 153–166.

Aslamkhan, M. (1971b). The mosquitoes of Pakistan. I. A checklist. Mosquito Systematics, 3(4), 147–159.

Basio, R.G. (1971b). The Mosquito Fauna of the Philippines (Diptera Culicidae). Monograph No. 4. Manila, Philippines: National Museum of the Philippines.

Bonne-Wepster, J., & Swellengrebel, N.H. (1953). The anopheline mosquitoes of the Indo-Australian Region. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: de Bussy.

Christophers, S.R. (1916b). A revision of the nomenclature of Indian Anophelini. Indian Journal of Medical Research (Calcutta), 3(3), 454–488.

Christophers, S.R. (1923b). An Anopheles of the Myzorhynchus group (Anopheles amazonicus sp. n.) from South America. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 17(1), 71–78.

Christophers, S.R. (1924a). Provisional list and reference catalogue of the Anophelini. Indian Medical Research Memoirs, 3, 1–105.

Christophers, S.R. (1924b). Some Himalayan and peninsular varieties of Indian species of Anopheles. Indian Journal of Medical Research (Calcutta), 12(1), 11–13.

Christophers, S.R. (1933). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Diptera. Vol. IV. Family Culicidae. Tribe Anophelini. London, England: Taylor and Francis.

Colless, D.H. (1955a). New anopheline mosquitoes from North Borneo. Sarawak Museum Journal, 6(5), 331–342.

D’Abrera, V.S.E. (1944). The eggs of the Ceylon anopheline mosquitoes. Journal of the Malaria Institute of India, 5(3), 337–359.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Pradhan, S.P. (1990). The mosquitoes of Nepal: Their identification, distribution and biology. Mosquito Systematics, 22(2), 69–130.

Darsie, R.F., Jr., & Pradhan, S.P. (1991). The mosquitoes of Nepal their identification, distribution and biology. Index and corrigendum. Mosquito Systematics, 23(1), 46–49.

Giles, G.M. (1901b). Description of four new species of Anopheles from India. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 37, 196–198.

Glick, J.I. (1992). Illustrated key to the female Anopheles of southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 24(2), 125–153.

Harbach, R.E., & Howard, T.M. (2007). Corrections in the status and rank of names used to denote varietal forms of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa, 1542, 35–48.

James, S.P., & Liston, W.G. (1911). A monograph of the anopheline mosquitoes of India (2nd ed.) Calcutta, India: Thacker, Spink.

Lien, J.C., Kawengian, B.A., Partono, F., Lami, B., & Cross, J.H. (1977). A brief survey of the mosquitoes of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, with special reference to the identity of Anopheles barbirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Margolembo area. Journal of Medical Entomology, 13(6), 719–727.

Ludlow, C.S. (1909a). Mosquito comment. The Canadian Entomologist, 41(1), 21–24.

Mochtar, R., & Walandouw., E.K. (1934). Een variëteit van A. gigas (Uit Sumatra’s Westkust). Geneeskundig tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië, 74, 932–935.

Narayandas, M.G. (1954). Description of the egg of Anopheles gigas gigas Giles, 1901. Indian Journal of Malariology, 8, 19–20.

Nguyen Thuong Hien. (1968). The genus of Anopheles in Vietnam (Military Entomology Information Service, Trans.). Saigon: Bureau of Entomology, National Malaria Program/Republic of Vietnam.

Oo, T.T., Storch, V., & Becker, N. (2004). Review of the Anopheles mosquitoes of Myanmar. Journal of Vector Ecology, 29(1), 21–40.

Qu, F., & Zhu, H. (2008). On a checklist of the anopheline mosquitoes in China with rectification for some specific names. Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, 26(3), 210–216.

Reid, J.A. (1968). Anopheline mosquitoes of Malaya and Borneo. Studies from the Institute for Medical Research Malaysia, 31, 520pp.

Somboon, P., Phanitchakun, T., Namgay, R., Wangdi, T., Pemo, D., & Harbach, R. E. (2020). Molecular and morphological evidence of sibling species in Anopheles baileyi Edwards (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bhutan and Thailand. Acta Tropica209, 105549.

Stone, A., & Knight, K.L. (1956b). Type specimens of mosquitoes in the United States National Museum. III. The genera Anopheles and Chagasia (Diptera, Culicidae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 46(9), 276–280.

Townsend, B.C. (1990). Culicidae. In B.C. Townsend, J. E. Chainey, R.W. Crosskey, A.C. Pont, R.P. Lane, J.P.T. Boorman, & C.A. Crouch (Eds.), A catalogue of the types of bloodsucking flies in the British Museum (Natural History) (pp. 35–152). London, England: British Museum (Natural History).

Waktoedi Koesoemawinangoen, R. (1954). Anophelini di Indonesia. Kjilid I. Djakarta, Indonesia: Djakarta Perpustakaan Perguruan Kementerian.



Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (Year). Anopheles gigas species page. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit Website,, accessed on [date (e.g. 03 February 2020) when you last viewed the site].