Section I: Recognition and Identification of Phlebotomine Sand Flies

Let's face it. They're tiny and difficult.

Identifying males is slightly easier than identifying females because the terminal genitalia (terminalia) located at the end of the abdomen have external anatomical characters that can generally be used to separate species. If you see any appendages (right), it's a male. However, a stereomicroscope with approximately 100x magnification is needed.

Sand fly male

Sand fly male

(Illus credit: Lane & Crosskey 1993

Sand fly male

[Unidentified species] male terminalia

Photo credit: WRAIR)

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