Culex (Cux.) pipiens


  • Linnaeus
  • 1758:602 (A)
  • Europe; Lapponia; America (USNM)



Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Comoros, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel (and Gaza Strip & West Bank), Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, South, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, Madagascar (includes Glorioso, Juan De Nova Is. and Mayotte), Mauritania, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Nigeria, Norway, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom (includes Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man), United States, contiguous lower 48, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Zimbabwe


  • bifurcatus Linnaeus
    • 1758:603 (A [type = An. (Ano.) claviger)
    • Type-loc: Europe (LSL)
    • Natvig 1948:438 (syst.)
    • Harbach, Dahl and White 1985:7 (lectotype desig.)
  • fasciatus Mueller
    • 1764:87 (A)
    • Type-loc: none designated (LU)
  • trifurcatus Fabricius
    • 1794:401 (A)
    • Type-loc: "Europae paludosis" (NE)
  • luteus Meigen
    • 1804:6 (F)
    • Type-loc: Europe (NE)
  • domesticus Germar
    • 1817:290 (A). Type-loc: Dalmatia, [Yugoslavia] (LU)
    • Marshall and Staley 1937:23 (syn.)
    • Harbach 1988:229 (from syn. molestus).


Larvae are found in numerous and variable breeding places ranging from highly polluted cesspits to clear water pools and containers. This species usually breeds in stagnant water in either shaded or unshaded situations. Females readily attack man both indoors and outdoors (Harbach 1988).

Medical Importance

It has been found naturally infected with Sindbis virus and West Nile viruses in Israel, West Nile and Rift Valley Fever in Egypt, and is a primary vector of periodic Bancroftian filariasis (Harbach 1988).

Culicidae » Culicinae » Culicini » Culex » Culex
habitus image

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Additional References

  • Darsie 1951:34 (P*)
  • Mattingly 1951b:331 (syst. review)
  • Carpenter and LaCasse 1955:284 (M*, F*, L*)
  • Horsfall 1955:563 (general review).
  • Mattingly and Knight 1956:102,120 (syst.)
  • Lewis 1956b:710 (syst)
  • Barr 1957a:153 (syst.)
  • Bohart and Washino 1957:463 (L*)
  • Mattingly 1957c:686 (tax.)
  • Rioux 1958:244 (M*,L*; tax.)
  • Ribeiro and Mexia:1966:176 (tax.)
  • Tewfik and Barr 1974:216 (chromosomes; ? molestus)
  • Bram 1975:347 (genetics)
  • Rickenbach, Eouzan, Ferrara and Bailly-Choumara 1976:96 (distr.)
  • Utrio 1976:129, 135 (L*)
  • Iglisch 1977:267 (M*)
  • Harbach, Dahl and White 1985:9 (neototype desig.)
  • Harbach 1988:23 (M, F, P*, L*)

Adult Stage, detail images:

Click on image to open larger view in a separate window. Higher-resolution detail images of some specimens are available on request.

Adult Stage, illustrations:

The Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit | Museum Support Center, MRC-534 | Smithsonian Institution | 4210 Silver Hill Rd. | Suitland, MD 20746-2863 USA | Ph: 301-238-1077; FAX: 301-238-3168
Entomology Branch | Walter Reed Army Institute of Research | 503 Robert Grant Avenue | Silver Spring, MD 20910-7500 USA

WRAIR logo  Smithsonian Institution logo © Smithsonian Institution  | Privacy | Terms of use | Contact WRBU