Toxorhynchites

Name-bearing Type

  • Theobald
  • 1901b:234
  • Type Species: Toxorhynchites brevipalpis

Distribution

SpeciesMap SpeciesMap SpeciesMap

Toxorhynchites are primarily tropical species, occuring in the eastern fringes of Asia and North America. Although three apparently introduced species are found in Fiji and Samoa in the South Pacific, the genus is otherwise absent from all oceanic islands, including New Zealand. Subgenus Toxorhynchites occurs only in the Old World; subgenus Afrorhynchus occurs in Africa; subgenera Ankylorhynchus and Lynchiella are confined to the New World.

Phylogeny

Not yet available.

Bionomics

Not yet available.

Medical Importance

Not yet available.

Culicidae » Culicinae » Toxorhynchitini
habitus image

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Representative species shown here: Toxorhynchites rutilus

Important References

  • Barraud, 1934 (southern Asia)
  • Edwards, 1941 (adults, Afrotropical Region)
  • Hopkins, 1952 (larvae, Afrotropical Region)
  • Lane, 1953 (Neotropical Region)
  • Thurman, 1959 (Thailand)
  • Belkin, 1962 (taxonomy, South Pacific)
  • Forattini, 1965b (Neotropical Region)
  • Cova-García et al., 1966 (Venezuela)
  • Belkin et al., 1970 (New World)
  • Tanaka et al., 1979 (Japan)
  • Steffan et al., 1980 (annotated bibliography)
  • Steffan & Evenhuis, 1981 (biology)
  • Clark-Gil & Darsie, 1983 (Guatemala)
  • Darsie, 1985 (keys, Argentina)
  • Steffan & Evenhuis, 1985 (subgenus Toxorhynchites)
  • Evenhuis & Steffan, 1986 (Acaudatus Group, Oriental Region)
  • Service, 1990 (Afrotropical Region)
  • Ribeiro, 1991 (Brevipalpis Group, Afrotropical Region)

Included Taxa

For more on taxa, see WRBU's Mosquito Catalog

Genus-specific Diagnostic Characters, Adult Stage
Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Covered with intensely colored iridescent scales

Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Proboscis (P) tapered, bent distinctively downward


Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Proboscis originates from a deep cavity on the capsule

Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Clypeus short


Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Scutellum (Stm) evenly rounded, not lobed

Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Acrostichal, dorsocentral and prescutellar setae absent


Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Wing distinctly emarginate near the terminus of vein CuA

Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Alula and upper calypter bare


Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Distinct schlerotization in cell M4 in front of vein CuA


Genus-specific Diagnostic Characters, Larval Stage
Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Mouthparts modified for predation, mouthbrushes of up to 10 flattened filaments

Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Lateral abdominal setae on distinct sclerites


Mosquito generic character

Photo credit: J. Stoffer, WRBU.

Comb (C) and pecten (Pt) absent


Whole Larvae
Mosquito generic character

Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis

Size, very large

Photo credit: CDR G W Schultz, USN Ret


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